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Frequently asked Questions


This page outlines many of the analyses that use the CLOC data. While this list is fairly comprehensive, it is not exhaustive. Please contact the project lead for more information about a particular project (e-mail addresses are listed at the bottom of the page). If you would like to add a project to this webpage, please contact



Boerner,K., Wortman, C. B., Bonanno, G. A. (2005) Resilient or at risk? A 4-year study of older adults who initially showed high or low distress following conjugal loss. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 60B (2): P67-P731

Bonanno, G. A., Wortman, C. B., Nesse, R. M. (2004). Prospective patterns of resilience and maladjustment during widowhood. Psychology of Aging, 19 (2): 260-271.

Bonanno, G. Wortman, C., Lehman, D., Tweed, R., Haring, M., Sonnega, J., Carr, D., & Nesse, R. (2002). Resilience to loss and grief: A prospective study from preloss to 18-months postloss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83 (5): 1150-1164.

Burton, A. M., Haley, W. E., & Small, B. J. (in press).  Bereavement after caregiving or unexpected death:  Effects on elderly spouses.  Aging & Mental Health.

Brown, S. (2003) Providing Social Support May be More Beneficial than Receiving It: Results from a Prospective Study of Mortality. Psychological Science.

Carr, D. (2004). Black/White Differences in Psychological Adjustment to Spousal Loss among Older Adults. Research on Aging, 26(6): 591-622.

Carr, D. (2004). The Desire to Date and Remarry among Older Widows and Widowers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66: 1051-68

Carr, D. (2004). Gender, Pre-Loss Marital Dependence and Older Adults’ Adjustment to Widowhood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66: 220-35.

Carr, D. (2003). A 'Good Death' for Whom? Quality of Spouse's Death and Psychological Distress among Older Widowed Persons. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44: 215-32.

Carr, D. & Utz, R. (2002). Late-life widowhood in the United States: New directions in research and theory. Ageing International, 27(1): 65-88.

Carr, D., House, J. S., Wortman, C., Nesse, R., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). Psychological adjustment to sudden and anticipated spousal death among the older widowed.  Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 56B(4): S237-48.

Carr, D., House, J. S., Kessler, R. C., Nesse, R. M., Sonnega, J., & Wortman, C. (2000). Marital quality and psychological adjustment to widowhood among older adults: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 55B(4): S197-207.

Ha, J., Carr, D., Utz, R., & Nesse, R. (2006) Older Adults' Perceptions of Intergenerational Support after Widowhood: How Do Men and Women Differ? Accepted for publication Journal of family issues, 27: 3-30.

Ha, J. & Carr. D. (2005). Parent-Child Geographic Proximity and Older Adults’ Adjustment to Widowhood. Research on Aging, 27(5): 578-610.

Prokos, A. & Keene, J. R. (forthcoming).  "The Long-Term Effects of Spousal Caregiving on Survivors' Well-Being in Widowhood."  Social Science Quarterly.

Stroebe, W., Zech, E., Stroebe, M., & Abakoumkin, G. (in press). Does social support help in bereavement? The impact on vulnerability and recovery. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.

Utz, R. L., Carr, D., Nesse, R., & Wortman, C. (2002). The effect of widowhood on older adults' social participation: An evaluation of activity, disengagement, and continuity theories. The Gerontologist, 42: 522-533.

Utz, R., Reidy, E., Carr, D., Nesse, R. M., & Wortman, C. B. (2004). “The Daily Consequences of widowhood: The Role of Gender and Intergenerational Transfers on Subsequent Housework Performance.” Journal of Family Issues 25(5): 683-712.

Williams, K. (2004). The Transition to Widowhood and the Social Regulation of Health: Consequences for Health and Health Risk Behavior. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 59B (6): S343–S349.



Survey Evidence of Clinical Wisdom: Special Occasions and Grief in the Elderly Widowed.
Project Lead: John Sonnega

Psychosocial Predictors of Spousal Mortality: Selection into Widowhood Status.
Project Lead: John Sonnega

Spousal Loss & Depression in the Elderly: CLOC study
Project Lead: John Sonnega, Randolph Nesse, James House, Rebecca Utz, & Deborah Carr

The process of Bereavement: An Analysis of Depression over Time
Project Lead: John Sonnega

The Economic Consequences of Late-Life Widowhood: Does Income Loss Impact Spousal Bereavement?
Project Lead: Rebecca Utz



Please contact individual authors to learn more about a specific project.

George Bonanno

Stephanie Brown

Kathy Carnelley

Debby Carr

Cindy Grief

Jung-hwa Ha

James House

Nina Knoll

Daniel Kruger

Randy Nesse

Mary-Francess O'Connor

Jennifer Reid Keene

Virgina Richardson

Nina Rhee

Beverly Shipley

John Sonnega

Charlie Stelle

Margaret Stroebe


Becky Utz

Amiram Vinokur

Kristi Williams

Camille Wortman

Emmanuelle Zech


University of Michigan - Institute for Social Research - Survey Research Center
Research Center for Group Dynamics - Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research